What is nursing?
The medical case consists in the fact that all the knowledge and practical actions of the doctor are directed to the detection of pathophysiological changes in the human body, the detection of the disease and its treatment.
But the disease puts both the patient and his family, the team in which the patient works or studies, a number of issues and problems that the doctor does not solve. For example, doctors saved the life of a person who suffered as a result of a complicated craniocerebral trauma, but because of the severity of the trauma and damage to the optic nerves, they could not keep the patient's eyesight. Consequently, the patient and his family have a lot of problems.
In this case, the nurse will help the patient to solve problems:
- it will help the patient and his family to adapt psychologically to the situation;
- it will teach the patient self-guidance and self-hygiene elements;
- it will help a person find his place in public life, etc.
So, nursing is not focused on the disease, but on the person as such or a group of people (family, collective, society). It is aimed at solving health problems that arise in people due to illness or other changes in health.
The goal of nursing is well defined in the training materials on the nursing "Lemon" (World Health Organization project, Regional Office in Europe, 1996).
According to these materials, the goals of nursing are:
- Help a person to determine and achieve physical, mental, social health and well-being in close connection with the social and environmental environment of a person. This manifests a holistic approach to the patient as a biopsychosocial entity.
- To promote the strengthening and preservation of health.
- Maximum participation of the person in the care of one's health.
- Prevention of patient's medical condition.
- Facilitating or minimizing the negative impact of poor health or disease on the individual.
- Meeting the needs of people in physical, emotional or social support in case of illness, malaise or death.
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Nursing care facilities can be:
- Individual (person, patient).
- Family (family in which the patient lives).
- Society to which the patient belongs (individual).